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The mineral olivine ( /ˈɒlɪˌviːn/) is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4. Thus it is a type of nesosilicate or orthosilicate. It is a common mineral in the Earth’s subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface.
The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember: Mg2SiO4) and fayalite (Fe-endmember: Fe2SiO4). Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molarpercentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e.g., Fo70Fa30). Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure, almost 1,900 °C (3,450 °F), but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1,200 °C [2,190 °F]). The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers, as do other properties. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen, silicon, magnesium and iron. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations.
Olivine’s crystal structure incorporates aspects of the orthorhombic P Bravais lattice, which arise from each silica (SiO4) unit being joined by metal divalent cations with each oxygen in SiO4 bound to 3 metal ions. It has a spinel-like structure similar to magnetite but uses one quadravalent and two divalent cations M22+ M4+O4 instead of two trivalent and one divalent cations.
Lanzarote (/ˌlænzəˈrɒti/; Spanish pronunciation: [lanθaˈɾote, lansaˈɾote]) is a Spanish island, the easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. It is located approximately 125 kilometres (78 miles) off the coast of Africa and 1,000 kilometres (621 miles) from the Iberian Peninsula. Covering 845.94 square kilometres (326.62 square miles), Lanzarote is the fourth-largest of the islands in the archipelago. With 141,938 inhabitants, it is the third-most populous Canary Island, after Tenerife and Gran Canaria. In the centre-west of the island is Timanfaya National Park, one of its main attractions. The capital is Arrecife.
The first recorded name for the island, given by Italian-Majorcan cartographer Angelino Dulcert, was Insula de Lanzarotus Marocelus, after the Genoese navigator Lancelotto Malocello, from which the modern name is derived. The island’s name in the native language was Tyterogaka or Tytheroygaka, which may mean “one that is all ochre” (referring to the island’s predominant colour).